Super infections are secondary bacteria-caused infections that usually develop while your body is fighting off a virus such as a cold or the flu. Generally, the bacteria that commonly cause super infections are in or are on our body already. However, it is while we are fighting off a virus that they then have the opportunity to invade our lungs or sinuses and cause a super infection.
Research has found that the cold or flu actually increases your susceptibility to bacterial infections, such as Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, and Group A streptococcus, and Staphylococcus. In animals studies it was found that disruption of the lining of the respiratory tract was a major factor. Other animal studies found that viral response to an infection can release chemicals that may interfere with the cells that kill bacterial. Combine this with weakened mucous membranes lining the lungs and you have the perfect set up for a bacterial super infection.
How a Super Infection Develops
Typically, someone develops a cold or flu. They might be sick for a week or more, but just as they start feeling better, their fever suddenly spikes and their symptoms worsen. Bacterial sinusitis is probably one of the more common super infections. It develops after the common cold (also called rhinitis.) A cold begins with sniffles, a runny nose accompanied by a clear nasal discharge, and no fever. If after a week or two you start to develop a fever, severe headache, and/or you notice the discharge from your nose is thicker and greenish-yellow, it is likely you have developed a superimposed case of bacterial sinusitis.
The most dangerous and lethal super infections are secondary pneumonias that typically develop after the flu. In fact this is what leads to the 500,000 deaths worldwide from influenza. Like bacterial sinusitis, secondary pneumonia develops after you are recovering from the flu. Suddenly you get very sick with high fever, chills, shortness of breath, wheezing and trouble breathing. If this happens to you or a family member, you must get in to see your doctor or go directly to the emergency department right away. If you have any signs or respiratory distress such as severe trouble breathing with bluish tinge to your lips or nail beds, call 911 immediately.