Juvenile Arthritis affects approximately 300,000 children in the US. Find out more about what the disease is, and how the symptoms can be managed and treated.
What is Juvenile Arthritis?
Juvenile arthritis is an umbrella description for several different types of autoimmune and inflammatory arthritis that can affect children under the age of 16. In an autoimmune disease, the immune system malfunctions and attacks different systems in the body, such as joints, organs and connective tissue. This is often expressed as inflammation.
Juvenile arthritis is one of the most common childhood diseases and affects approximately 300,000 children in the US. It usually develops between the ages of two and four or during the tween or teen years and it is more frequent in girls than in boys. The cause of most forms of juvenile arthritis is not known, but genetic factors play a role. There is no evidence that foods, toxins, vitamin deficiencies or allergies are involved in its development.
The most common form of juvenile arthritis is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), previously known as Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis. Most cases of JIA are very different from adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In fact, only 10 percent of cases are similar to adult RA. Idiopathic means "of unknown origin," reflecting our current state of knowledge regarding how this disease develops.
Symptoms of JIA include joint swelling and misalignment, tightening of soft tissue and muscles, bone erosion and systemic symptoms, such as fevers and rash. There are different categories of JIA, depending on how many joints are involved, if onset was systemic and whether the Rheumatoid Factor blood test is positive or negative.
Diagnosis and Treatment
For very young children, losing a developmental milestone – such as walking – can be one of the first signs of juvenile arthritis. Other symptoms may be swelling and pain in the joints and unexplained fevers and rash.
Early diagnosis is essential so treatment can start. If your pediatrician suspects that your child may have juvenile arthritis, they will refer you to a pediatric rheumatologist. Diagnosis is made primarily based on a medical history and a thorough physical exam. Other diagnostic tests will also be included, such as lab work (blood tests), x-rays and other imaging.
A potential serious complication of juvenile arthritis is different types of eye inflammation, such as uveitis or iritis. Left untreated, they can cause blindness. It is important that children with juvenile arthritis have regular checkups with a pediatric ophthalmologist, working with the child's rheumatologist.
There is no cure for juvenile arthritis, but it is possible to treat it. Children with juvenile arthritis respond better to early treatment, which can prevent deformity and disability. The medications used are the same as those used to treat adults with rheumatoid arthritis, also an autoimmune disease. Two groups of drugs are used. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs address the symptoms of pain and inflammation. Secondly, medications to change the disease and bring the child into remission or low disease activity. Most of the second group of medications are immunosuppressants – suppressing the immune system limits the way it attacks systems in the body. Methotrexate is the gold standard of treatment. Methotrexate is a chemotherapy drug, but when used to treat juvenile arthritis or RA, it is given in doses much, much smaller than when it is used to treat cancer. The newer biologic drugs, such as Enbrel, Humira and Simponi, are also used.