Radical Mastectomy

This was one of the first breast surgeries that was used to treat breast cancer. Then, breast surgeons operated under the assumption of “When in doubt, take it out,” since breast cancer can spread in unpredictable ways. In this procedure, done in 1979, the breast tissue, nipple, skin, underlying chest muscles, and lymph nodes in the armpit were all removed. It’s rarely performed today because of the high rate of complications and death from the surgery.

Skin Sparing Mastectomy

In this operation, the breast, nipple and areola were removed without the removal of the breast skin or chest muscles. The remaining skin can be used to perform a cosmetic reconstruction of the breast that would involve the use of an implant. This woman pictured here got the operation only on her left side in 1994, and no breast reconstruction was done.

Bilateral Mastectomy With Reconstruction

In this patient, the breast tissue, nipple, and areola were removed, while saving the surrounding skin of both breasts in 2001. This person then had breast reconstruction, which included getting implants and reconstruction of the nipples. Note the incision lines over where the reconstructed nipples are located.

Bilateral Nipple Sparing Mastectomy With Reconstruction

After research showed that many breast cancers do not spread to the nipple, surgeons started performing surgeries that removed the breast tissue, but saved the nipples. In this operation, done in 2008, only the breast tissue was removed, sparing the nipple and the areola. This women then got reconstructive surgery during the same procedure.

4 Steps to Shedding Your Pandemic Pounds

Forgive yourself, and start walking toward a healthier you.

For those of you who have put on the Pandemic Pounds or added several new COVID Curves, you are not alone. Alarmingly, the American Psychological Association has recently published that almost half of all adults in their survey now have a larger physique. In fact, 42% of people reported gaining roughly 15 pounds (the average published was surprisingly 29 pounds but that included outliers) over the past year. Interestingly, 20% of adults in this survey lost about 12 pounds (I am surely not in this group). Clearly, there is a relationship between stress and weight change. In addition, one in four adults disclosed an increase in alcohol consumption, and 67% of participants distressingly revealed that they have new sleeping patterns.

This past year has brought about what has been called the 'new normal.' Social isolation and inactivity due to quarantining and remote working have sadly contributed to the decline in many people's mental and physical health, as demonstrated by the widespread changes in people's weight, alcohol consumption, and sleeping patterns. Gym closures, frequent ordering of unhealthy takeout, and increased time at home cooking and devouring comfort foods have had a perceptible impact. In addition, many people have delayed routine medical care and screening tests over fear of contracting Covid-19 during these visits. Unfortunately, the 'new normal' has now placed too many people at risk for serious health consequences, including heart attacks and strokes.

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