Phthalates are primarily used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) polymers to increase their flexibility. FDA authorizes the use of some phthalates in flexible food packaging made from PVC and PVDC.
As it pertains to the packaging material for boxed macaroni and cheese, the packaging itself would not contain phthalates as these products do not require softening agents.
There are a wide variety of authorized applications where phthalates can be used in food contact materials but there are three main regulated classes, polymers, adhesives and metal coatings. These include an addition to certain polymers (PVC) where the concentration added is in percent quantities to make them flexible and crack resistant, i.e., hoses, conveyor belts, plastic films. They can be added to packaging adhesives for flexibility. Packaging adhesives require a barrier between the adhesive and the food. Phthalates can also be added to coatings applied to protect metal surfaces such as can coatings and storage tanks. Moreover, phthalates in the environment can be found in many non-food related products.
Various phthalates are permitted to be used in specified food contact substances as allowed by regulation. FDA would look at the exposure levels in the food to determine if the levels were in excess of what would be expected from migration from an authorized use in the product’s processing equipment or packaging. Where no limits are specified in an applicable food additive regulation, 21 CFR 174.5 limits a number of phthalates that may be added in food contact applications to good manufacturing practices (the minimum amount necessary to achieve the intended technical effect).
The FDA, as a science-driven regulatory agency, requires, under the food additive provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, that there must be a reasonable certainty of no harm from food ingredients. Food packaging, components of which can migrate into food, must be found safe for their intended use before they can be marketed. Specifically, there must be sufficient scientific information to demonstrate that the use of a substance in food contact materials is safe under the intended conditions of use before it is authorized for those uses. For food contact substances, which includes substances used in packaging, the FDA’s safety evaluations generally focus on dietary exposure to the food contact substance, as well as available toxicity information on the substance, in order to determine if the exposure from the intended use is safe.
The FDA continues to evaluate available information on a food additive after its approved and as new data becomes available. If our review of existing data no longer supports the continued safe use of these materials in food contact material, FDA will take appropriate regulatory action to remove these materials from the marketplace.
Follow security Expert Bill Staton's important advice to keep yourself safe.
Have you ever had a tense interaction with a stranger in public? Perhaps your shopping carts accidentally knocked into each other or there was a misunderstanding in communication and the other person gets angry. You may wonder how you can de-escalate the aggression and exit the situation safely. So security expert Bill Stanton has your go-to advice for staying alert and protecting yourself in the face of verbal aggression and physical attacks.
THE INITIAL INTERACTION
Bill Stanton: "It always starts with something small, like someone being too close to you, or even more common, you get bumped by a shopping cart. You want to look at their eyes first -it may reveal emotional changes. But you can't rely on just that. Look at what their trunk is doing; a person's torso will reveal their intent. Body language like raising hands, heightened expression, tense shoulders — these are natural responses to a person who is feeling threatened and will escalate. They may begin to zero in on the space between you and them, and their voice will get louder and louder. You want to read this before it gets further and becomes explosive."
THE VERBAL AGGRESSION
Bill Stanton: "You have to give them what they need not what they want! They want you to give them permission to attack. The second you yell back or counter, that is the green light they want. But what they really need is for you to validate them, even if you are right and they are wrong! It's jarring and can stop them down. Next, raise your hands in the 'I'm sorry' position while planting your feet. Open palms in the air for them reads like you are fearful and sorry, but it also allows you to have more control if de-escalation doesn't work.
THE PHYSICAL ATTACK
Bill Stanton: "The goal is to defend, disable, and depart — and the best way to defend is to remember the word 'GET.' It will help you get to safety.
G: Groin — If you are standing in front or if they are grabbing you, this will cause them to double over and redirect their attention. They might even go down
E: Eyes — Make hands into a claw
T: Throat — Open palm to the Adam's apple. This will cause them to put their hands on their throat. Then once they are stunned, follow up with an elbow to get them to the ground and you can flee!
The goal is to get to safety, but not everyone is physically able to do this. If you end up on the ground, cover your organs by crouching over your knees to protect your liver, heart, and kidneys, and tuck in your face."
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